Clauses of purpose (účelové věty)


  1. Prosím, abys jí pomohl. = VV předmětná - object.clause
  2. Je důležité, abys jí pomohl. = VV podmětná - subj.clause
  3. Jsi tu abys jí pomohl. = VV účelová
  • The police locked the door, so that nobody could get in.
  • Jack went to England to study engineering.
  • =the subjects have     = the infinitive of purpose
  •  to be the same
  • Jack went to England to / in order to / so as to study engineering. =POSITIVE SENTENCES
  • He went to England so as not to / in order not to forget his English. = NEGATIVE SENTENCE
    • Vezmi si mapu abys nezabloudil.
    • Take a map in case you(taking precaution)- pro případ / so as not to get lost.

A False clause of purpose

  • He was running fast only to discover that the train had left.
  • I´ll do everything so that you won´t complain.
  • = I´ll do everything to prevent (from) you complaining.
  • I´ll do everything so that you´ll / to make you feel comfortable.


  • She speaks /spoke low for fear that they may / might overhear her.
  • She gets / got up early lest (aby ne) she should miss the train.

“FOR“describes how things are used:

  • This button is for starting the machine. - nepatří do účel.souvětí

CLAUSES OF REASON (příčinné v.)

  • He didn´t go to the meeting because he wasn´t interested.
  • As it is february we are nearer to spring. = něco co je obecně známé, východisko sdělení
  • As it is your birthday we brought you some flowers. × We brought you some flowers, because it is your birthday. -NE!!!
  • God forgive them for they know not what they do. - dated and literary -zastaralé a knižní

Prepositions of reason:

The match was cancelled because of / due to / owing to / on account of the bad weather.


  • They lied to me and so / so that / that´s why / for that reason / as a result / therefore / consequently I don´t trust them any more. = v důsledku toho
  • He is so (+adj.) tall that he always hits his head on the door.
  • She is such (+noun) a busy person that she´s never bored.
  • The table is too heavy for me to lift.
  • I´m not strong enough to lift the table.
  • The tea is too hot to drink it.  -NE!!!

CLAUSES OF CONTRAST (odporovací) AND CONSESSION (přípustkové)

  • Although / Though / Even though / Even if you don´t like him, you still can be polite.
  • Jill is good at running while / whilst / whereas his sister is good at jumping.
  • He runs fast. But he didn´t win.
    • However, / Nevertheless, he didn´t win.
  • He didn´t, though. /, however. /, nevertheless.
  • Inspite of / Despite running fast he didn´t win.
  • She was injured. She won the race.
  • Despite / inspite of  +  noun /-ing
  • Despite her injury / being injured she won the race.
  • Whatever you do / No matter what you do, don´t touch those wires.
  • Kdo přijde, ať počká. Whoever comes / No matter who comes tell them to wait.
  • No matter how / However much they liked each other they quarrelled a lot.


  • He looks as if he didn´t know me. = but he does
  • You look as if you are happy. = you are obviously
  • You look as if you have been running.
  • She looked as if she had seen a ghost.
  • They looked at me as if / like I was crazy.