There are 3 degrees of comparison:
↓POSITIVE↓ ↓COMPARATIVE↓ ↓SUPERLATIVE↓
a/ one – syllable adjectives and two - syllable adjectives ending in –y are compared by means of:
-er the –est
old older the oldest
big bigger the biggest
late later the latest
happy happier the happiest
- with a few two – syllable adjectives both ways of comparison are possible:
These are ending in –er, -ow, -le
e.g. clever - cleverer - the cleverest
- more clever - the most clever
- extra skupina: more – the most
common, quiet, handsome, polite, pleasant, wicked, stupid, cruel, tired
- irregular: good – better – the best
bad - worse – the worst
late - later - the latest (nejnovější)
- latter - the last (poslední)
- the former – the latter: John and Frank are students. The former is getting on well, the latter
wants drop out.
- His latest book is better than his last book.
- Far - farther – the farthest
- further – the furthest
=> both refer to the distance : It´s farther / further from here.
=> the system of further education
=> I can´t give you any further information = extra or additional
- old – older – the oldest
- elder – the eldest + son, daughter, brother, sister … členové rodiny – my elder / older sister
- little – less / lesser – the least : The Lesser Town, The Lesser Bear, the lesser of the two evils
b/ two and more – syllable words:
modern - more / less modern - the most / least modern
interesting - more / less interesting- the most / least interesting
1/ How to form them?
a/ adjective + ly = adverb
slow + ly = slowly
b/ adjective = adverb
fast = fast ( back, early, far, long, straight)
hard = hard( hardly- sotva, stěží)
adjective adverb x
hard This is hard work. He works hard. I can hardly understand. (stěží)
deep a deep pond deep in my heart deeply hurt (hluboce)
direct a direct way You can dial direct. Call the doctor directly.(okamžitě)
high a high mountain high in the mountains It´s s highly interesting. = very
late a late train late in the evening I haven´t seen him lately.
low a low building to hang low lowly paid = mizerně, špatně
near a near town near here it´s nearly twelve= téměř,skoro
right rightly punished ( spravedlivě)
short cut it short (zkrať to) shortly after dark = soon
c/ adjective adverb
friendly in a friendly way
interesting in an interesting way
2/ How to compare them?
a/ slowly more slowly (the) most slowly
b/ fast faster (the) fastest
hard harder (the) hardest
c/ in a friendly way in a more friendly way in the most friendly way
in an interesting way in an more interesting way in the most interesting way
e.g. He laughs best who laughs last( není člen). The machine runs most quietly at 6,000 revolutions per minute. He went furthest of all saying we were idiots. The longest I can stay is 3 hours. The Mousetrap is the longest running play.
- irregular comparatives:well – better – best
badly- worse – worst
little – less – least
- talking about similar things:He drives like his father.
He drives just like his father.
Drive as fast as you can.
Living in the country is as expensive as living in a town.
Living in the country is not as expensive as living in a town.
I´ve never been to such a good party as this one.
- talking about differences:I´m older than he is. (formal)
I´m older than him. ( informal)
He drives better than he does (F) / him (I).
This is much more / a lot more / far more / rather more / a little more
/a bit more expensive.
- continuous change:He´s getting fatter and fatter.
Are you any happier now?
The – the :the more, the better
the faster you drive, the more petrol you will use
Far ( C+ U) - far / much more water ( U)
-far / many more water (C)
- superlative:She´s the most sensible of them all / in the class.
She´s by far the most sensible girl.
X That was most kind of you. = very
That was a most interesting talk. = very / highly
Most people don´t agree. = většina
just – more just
shy – shyer
dry – drier
a kind harted woman – a kinder harted woman
hard working – more hard working