Passive voice (Trpný rod)
The active voice: My grandfather planted this tree.
subject (T-transitive) object
The passive voice: This tree was planted by my grandfather.
→ Transitive verbs are followed by a direct object. (in the accusative case - 4.p.)
- write a letter, read a book ... trans.verbs
× to like, to have - nelze vytvořit trpnou větu
→ Intransitive verbs have no object (happen) or have an indirect object ( in the dative case- 3.p.) - to belong sb. - The car belongs to my sister.
If a verb is followed by a preposition, the preposition stays with it in the passive sentence:
E.g. rely on
- They relied on him. = He was relied on.
- They laughed at her. = She was laughed at.
Verb + 2 objects:
They handed me a note.
→ A note was handed to me.
→ I was handed a note.
Agent or no agent:
- it is not always necessary to include the agent in the passive sentence
a. Someone has stolen my bicycle. = My bicycle has been stolen. - There is no point in adding „by
someone“, because the agent is unknown
b. He was arrested. = by police, detective - The agent is obvious
He was dismissed. = by his employer
c. They opened the door with the screwdriver. = The door was opened with a screwdriver. (by them)
= the instrument is more important than the agent
- He was hit with a branch. = someone hit him with (-implies presence of a person) a branch .
- He was hit by a branch. = a branch hit him
- Miniskirts are worn again. = a generalised agent
You use the passive with „reporting verbs“:
- say, expect, report, suppose, believe, understand, know... = to avoid impersonal subject „they“ or „people“
e.g. People say(reporting verb) he is rich. = He is said to be rich.
HAVE STG. DONE
a. we speak about services done for us by someone else
- We are having the bathroom painted. = Právě nám malují koupelnu.
- We have had new tiles put on the roof.
- Where did you have your hair cut?
b. The King had his head cut off. = we also speak about misfortune which happened to us caused by an unspecified person
I have had my bike stolen.
!!! He had his old dog shot. - Zastřelili mu starého psa. i Nechal zastřelit starého psa.
GET STG. DONE
- expresses urgency: I must get my car serviced.
- In the end we got the wall painted. = we managed to do this ourselves !!!
- the imperative (rozkaz) : Get vaccinated before going abroad.
Make, let, hear, see, (help):
- - active voice: They made him leave.
- - passive voice: He was made to leave.
They let him leave. × He was allowed to leave.
ACTIVE VERBS WITH PASSIVE MEANING:
- The book reads well. Ta kniha se dobře čte.
- The new Ford is selling badly.
- There is a lot to see / to be seen.
- × There is nothing to do. = I am bored.)
- There is nothing to be done. = no way of putting it right - už se to nedá napravit
- - want, need, require:
- The shirt needs washing / to be washed.
THE PASSIVE IS USED:
a. when we want to focus on the action rather than the agent:
J.F.Kennedy assassinated in 1963.
b. for style reasons:
When he came home, a detective arrested him.
he was arrested.= pouze 1 podmět- the same subjects are preferred
c. in scientific report:
The air is separated into hydrogen, oxygen...
d. you want to avoid naming a specific person:
It´s been decided to reduce all salaries by 10 per cent.
- A new shop was opened / has been opened.
- There was a new shop opened.
- New houses were /are built.
- There are new houses being built.