Prepositions (předložky)


  • 1/ Of movement- to drive towards the mountains
  • 2/ Of position and place- it is on top of the fridge
  • 3/ Purpose (účelu)- he did everything for her, to commit crimes for money
    •     × he was sent to prison for stealing- není účel
  • 4/ They cancelled the match because of the rain, he didn´t arrrive due to an illness, he stole from hunger, she married for love (z lásky), I said that out of pity/ sympathy, I went there out of curiosity ( ze zvědavosti),
    • !!! Picasso died of flu. – zemřít na nemoc+of old age × to die from starvation (vyhladovění)
  • 5/ Of origin (původu)- he comes from France
  • 6/ Of instrument- he opened the can with a knife
    • !!! He was hit with a branch = someone hit him with a branch
    • by a branch = a branch hit him


Arrive - není slovesem pohybu

  • You arrive - in cities and countries, but

                        - at places

They arrived in Prague / at the airport ...

Leave - for

  • He left for Prague. Odjel do Prahy.
  • He left Olomouc for Prague. Odjel z Olomouce do Prahy.

Get on / off

  • a bus / train / tram / bike / horse / motorbike

Get into / out of

  • a car / lorry / taxi / small boats / private planes

We went by train / car / bus ... bez členu

We went in a taxi / his car / in (on) the next train... pokud potřebujeme říct člen, zájmeno, př.jméno

Some prepositions = adverbs

  • Sit behind me( sedni si za mě). × Sit behind (sedni si dozadu).
  • Wait outside the cinema (počkej před kinem) × Wait outside ( počkej venku).

Prepositions at the end of a sentence

  • Who are you waiting for?
  • I don´t have a chair to sit on.

He sits next / beside Paula. (vedle)

He sits by the exit / at the table.

By the sea = very close  × Near the sea = perhaps 5 km

Above × below

- co je níž × výš - představa svislého pohybu

  • above the freezing point ( zero)
  • above the sea level, below average
  • the clouds above our heads
  • the village below the hill

Over × under

- closeness, touching, covering

  • Hold the umbrella over my head. ( = kvůli nějakému účelu - abychom se schovali před děštěm)
  • a dog under the table - aby se schoval
  • put the blanket over you
  • there is a cloud over the south of Europe
  • The plane flew over Denmark.

At - in - on

  • at a point - at the North Pole
  • in = inside ( three dimensions) - in the room
  • on - position an a surface, on a line - on the table, on the wall, a place on the river

At × in

- we spent the weekend at the cottage  = mushrooming, repairing..., we think of activity going on there

                                      in the cottage  = it rained

  • Yesterday I was at the theatre. ( dívala jsem se na představení)
  • 300 seats in the cinema. ( v budově, představa 3D     )
  • We met at / in the cinema.
    • along / up / down the street
    • turn left into Smetana Street
    • through - the forest (představa prodírání se)
    • off - cut a piece off a loaf, fall off a bike
    • in front of a mirror
    • before- A comes before B × Right before my eyes ( idiom)


-during × in - We met in the summer. (jednorázově)

                    - His health improved during the summer.( trvání)

-for × since - It has been raining for a week. How long are you here for? → FOR + period of t.

                    - It has been raining since Monday. → SINCE + a point of time     

- from × since - She played the piano from the age of 5.

                       - She has played the piano since the age of 5.

  • our lesson lasts till 12 (něco trvá)
  • hand in your essays by Monday (lhůta)
  • 3 days ago × 3 days before Christmas

-Everybody came except (for) you / apart from you. = but you didn´t - vyjma

 What language do you study besides English / apart from English? - vedle angličtiny

 = apart from - univerzální

  • a book by Grahame Green
  • in my opinion - podle mého názoru, from my point of view- u mého hlediska
  • for this reason- z tohoto důvodu
  • in pencil- tužkou × don´t write with this pencil
  • talk in a loud voice / in a whisper
  • on the phone, on the radio, on (the) TV
  • by my watch- podle mých hodinek
  • a cell in the prison × she is in prison
  • the face in the picture × the dust on the picture
  • in(to) + throw, fall, jump, dive, put
  • at a concert, at the theatre
  • a place on the map, on the wall, on the floor
  • by tram / in our car / on the next bus / in his boat
  • a plane above the mountains
  • temperatures below zero
  • at height above the sea level
  • she left for New York
  • wait till Christmas
  • a performance below average
  • at the age of 5 / in his teens, thirties
  • a blow below the belt( rána pod pás)
  • he climbed onto the roof
  • she swam across the river
  • she walked over the bridge
  • along / up / down the street
  • despite / inspite of / regardless of her cold
  • I couldn´t see him through the smoke
  • come home by ten
  • open it with the knife
  • an exam in English