Relative clauses (vztažné věty)
A. DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES
- Is that the woman who / that wants to buy your car?
- animate noun (životné podst.jm.)
→The relative clause identifies the woman, it says which woman is meant.
- This is the book that / which(subject- podmět) won the prize.
- inanimate noun (neživotné podst. jm.)
- He´s a man whom(object) people(subject) like ar first sight.
- This is very formal and used in written English,
-in spoken English, an object pronoun is left out:
- He is a man people like at the first sight.
- The people with whom he worked thought him rather strange. - WR.E.
- The people he worked for thought him rather strange. - SP.E.
- I´ve just spoken to the woman whose son broke our window.
- We´re in a classroom the window of which look out on the heating plant. - formal
- We´re in a classroom whose...
WHO × THAT
"That“ is preferred after indefinite ponouns: few, all, much, little, only, superlatives, some(thing), any(thing), no(thing), every(thing)
- Tohle je něco, co mě překvapuje.
- This is something that surprises me. - nesmíme použít “what“!!!
B. NON - DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES
- I´ve just met Mrs.Parkinson, who sends her regards.
- !informace navíc!
- Můžeme rozdělit: I´ve just met Mrs.Parkinson. She sends you her regards(by the way).
- This relative clause doesn´t identify the person( She´s already been identified by her name). Such relative clause only adds some additional information. In writting it is separated by a comma, in speech by a pause.
- My daughter who is 20 teaches biology. = mám víc dcer
- My daughter,who is 20,teaches biology. = „who is 20“ - additional information - „by the way“- 1 dcera
- Our house, which we bought five years ago, has a large garden.
- The tall man, whom none of us recognized(object pronoun), turned out to be Pat´s husband.
- She spoke about her latest book, of which none of us had heard.
- This is Jack, whose sister is staying with us.
- It´s a family of five children, all of whom study medicine. (z nichž všichni)
- I tried on five pairs of shoes, none of which fitted.
- I watched the play till the end of the first act, at which moment(v kterémžto momentu) I felt I had seen enough.
- This is the street where I live.
- Come at 3, when I´ll have more time.
- There is hardly a day when I don´t think of you.
- We stopped in Brighton, where she owns a shop.
- He tore up her photo, which upset her.
- this relative clause refers to the fact expressed in the preceding sentence(komentář předcházející věty)
WHAT- nevztahuje se ke vztažným větám !!!
- To, co říká, není pravda. → What he says is not true.
- Nevím, co říká. - vv předmětná → I don´t know what he says.
- Dají mu vše, co si bude přát. He will be given everything/ anything (that) he asks for.
- Will you be able to come? I wonder if you will be able to come. I´ll be interested to know if you are able to come.
- When will you come? - when - význam „kdy“
- × Let me know when you will come. - when - ve významu „až“
- The travellers(I) who knew about the floods (I) took another road.