Relative clauses (vztažné věty)



  • Is that the woman who / that wants to buy your car?
  • animate noun (životné

→The relative clause identifies the woman, it says which woman is meant.

  • This is the book that / which(subject- podmět) won the prize.
  • inanimate noun (neživotné podst. jm.)
    • He´s a man whom(object) people(subject) like ar first sight.
    • This is very formal and used in written English,

-in spoken English, an object pronoun is left out:

  • He is a man people like at the first sight.
  • The people with whom he worked thought him rather strange. - WR.E.
  • The people he worked for thought him rather strange. - SP.E.
  • I´ve just spoken to the woman whose son broke our window.
  • We´re in a classroom the window of which look out on the heating plant. - formal
  • We´re in a classroom whose...

WHO        ×      THAT

(animate)          (inanimate)

 "That“ is preferred after indefinite ponouns: few, all, much, little, only, superlatives, some(thing), any(thing), no(thing), every(thing)

  • Tohle je něco, co mě překvapuje.
  • This is something that surprises me. - nesmíme použít “what“!!!


  • I´ve just met Mrs.Parkinson, who sends her regards.
    • !informace navíc!
  • Můžeme rozdělit: I´ve just met Mrs.Parkinson. She sends you her regards(by the way).
  • This relative clause doesn´t identify the person( She´s already been identified by her name). Such relative clause only adds some additional information. In writting it is separated by a comma, in speech by a pause.
    • My daughter who is 20 teaches biology. = mám víc dcer
    • My daughter,who is 20,teaches biology. = „who is 20“ - additional information - „by the way“- 1 dcera
    • Our house, which we bought five years ago, has a large garden.
    • The tall man, whom none of us recognized(object pronoun), turned out to be Pat´s husband.
    • She spoke about her latest book, of which none of us had heard.
    • This is Jack, whose sister is staying with us.
    • It´s a family of five children, all of whom study medicine. (z nichž všichni)
    • I tried on five pairs of shoes, none of which fitted.
    • I watched the play till the end of the first act, at which moment(v kterémžto momentu) I felt I had seen enough.


  • This is the street where I live.
  • Come at 3, when I´ll have more time.
  • There is hardly a day when I don´t think of you.
  • We stopped in Brighton, where she owns a shop.
  • He tore up her photo, which upset her.
    • this relative clause refers to the fact expressed in the preceding sentence(komentář předcházející věty)

WHAT- nevztahuje se ke vztažným větám !!!

  • To, co říká, není pravda. → What he says is not true.
  • Nevím, co říká. - vv předmětná → I don´t know what he says.


  • Dají mu vše, co si bude přát. He will be given everything/ anything (that) he asks for.
  • Will you be able to come? I wonder if you will be able to come. I´ll be interested to know if you are able to come.
  • When will you come? - when - význam „kdy“
  • × Let me know when you will come. - when - ve významu  „až“
  • The travellers(I) who knew about the floods (I) took another road.