Wishes and other hypotheticals
A. WISHES ABOUT PRESENT STATES - VĚTY „VZDYCHACÍ“ - impossible
I´m small. If only I were taller. / I wish I were taller.
I can´t ski. I wish I could ski.
We live in the city. If only we lived in the country / didn´t live in the city.
I´m going to the dentist tomorrow. I wish I wasn´t going to the dentist tomorrow.
- My daughter doesn´t help me. I wish she did.
- John won´t come (ne a ne přijít) to my party. I wish he would come to my party.-our appeal to a person
- You will smoke in my room. I wish you wouldn´t smoke in my room.
- He can´t speak English. He wishes he could speak English.
= Wishes are about impossible (unreal) things. - platí v tomto okamžiku -je možné se naučit lyžovat, mluvit anglicky atd.
You show the unreality by moving one tense back.
B. WISHES ABOUT PAST EVENTS
I wasn´t happy at school. I wish I had been happier at school.
He didn´t pass the exam. He wishes he had passed the exam.
She failed the driving test. She wishes she hadn´t failed the driving test. - její přání
If only she hadn´t failed the driving test.- moje přání
OTHER CONJUNCTIONS WITH WISH:
- I wish to stay here. = I want to stay here. - chci tu zůstat, přeji si, chci- není nereálné !!!
- I wish them to stay here. - chci, aby tu zůstali
- I wish you happiness. - wish + noun
- It´s time to leave. → It´s time we left.
- It´s high time for you to start work. - neutral × It´s high time you started work. - you are being lazy
- I´d rather / sooner...- vztahuje se na budoucnost, přítomnost
- refers to a choice between 2 items
- divadlo × kino - I´d rather go to the cinema than to the theatre tonight.
- hory × moře (min.rok) - I´d rather have gone to the mountains, than to the seaside last year, but my parents... - byla bych raději jela
- Raději bych, kdybys tu nekouřil. I´d rather you didn´t smoke here.
- you´d (had) better - raději bys měl
- you should apologise- měl bys
- you had better apologise- skryté varování - raději bys měl
- Take a taxi, if (it is)necessary / if ( it is)possible - vynecháme „ it is“
- Are you cold?
- If not, I´ll open the window.
- If so, I´ll close the window.
- If it weren´t for you, we would be in a mess. - nebýt tebe...
- If it hadn´t been for you, we would have lost.
- It looks as if... = It seems like
- He acts as if
- real comparison: he´s the boss here.
- unreal comparison: he were the boss here.
- He acts like he is boss here.
- You look as you have been crying. - má opuchlé oči - výsledek
- You look as you had met the ghosts. - nereálné potkat ducha
- = In today´s English, there is no obvious difference (as if - like)
- God save the Queen. - nechť - bez koncovky !!
- Long live he. - Nechť dlouho žije.
- Verbs + subjunctive: demand(požadovat), insist (vyžadovat, trvat na něčem), request, require, recommend
- They demand that he leave.
- They demand that he be dismissed.
- Navrhují mu, aby požádal o práci. They suggest him that he apply for the job.
- in less formal English: that + should
- They suggest, that he should apply for the job.