Wishes and other hypotheticals



states:                                                 wishes:
I´m small.                                             If only I were taller. / I wish I were taller.

I can´t ski.                                            I wish I could ski.

We live in the city.                                If only we lived in the country / didn´t live in the city.

I´m going to the dentist tomorrow.        I wish I wasn´t going to the dentist tomorrow.


  • My daughter doesn´t help me. I wish she did.
  • John won´t come (ne a ne přijít) to my party. I wish he would come to my party.-our appeal to a person
  • You will smoke in my room. I wish you wouldn´t smoke in my room.
  • He can´t speak English. He wishes he could speak English.

= Wishes are about impossible (unreal) things. - platí v tomto okamžiku -je možné se naučit lyžovat, mluvit anglicky atd.

You show the unreality by moving one tense back.


events:                                                wishes:

I wasn´t happy at school.                      I wish I had been happier at school.

He didn´t pass the exam.                      He wishes he had passed the exam.

She failed the driving test.                    She wishes she hadn´t failed the driving test. - její přání

                                                           If only she hadn´t failed the driving test.- moje přání


  • I wish to stay here. = I want to stay here. - chci tu zůstat, přeji si, chci- není nereálné !!!
  • I wish them to stay here. - chci, aby tu zůstali
  • I wish you happiness. - wish + noun


  • It´s time to leave. → It´s time we left.
  • It´s high time for you to start work. - neutral  ×   It´s high time you started work. - you are being lazy
  • I´d rather / sooner...- vztahuje se na budoucnost, přítomnost
    • refers to a choice between 2 items
    • divadlo × kino - I´d rather go to the cinema than to the theatre tonight.
    • hory × moře (min.rok) - I´d rather have gone to the mountains, than to the seaside last year, but my parents... - byla bych raději jela
  • Raději bych, kdybys tu nekouřil. I´d rather you didn´t smoke here.


  • you´d (had) better - raději bys měl
  • you should apologise- měl bys
  • you had better apologise- skryté varování - raději bys měl


  1. Take a taxi, if (it is)necessary / if ( it is)possible - vynecháme „ it is“
  2. Are you cold?
  • If not, I´ll open the window.
  • If so, I´ll close the window.
  1. If it weren´t for you, we would be in a mess. - nebýt tebe...
  • If it hadn´t been for you, we would have lost.
  1. It looks as if... = It seems like
  • He acts as if 
    • real comparison: he´s the boss here.
    • unreal comparison: he were the boss here.
  • He acts like he is boss here.
  • You look as you have been crying. - má opuchlé oči - výsledek
  • You look as you had met the ghosts. - nereálné potkat ducha
  • = In today´s English, there is no obvious difference (as if - like)


  • God save the Queen. - nechť - bez koncovky !!
  • Long live he. - Nechť dlouho žije.
  • Verbs + subjunctive: demand(požadovat), insist (vyžadovat, trvat na něčem), request, require, recommend
  • They demand that he leave.
  • They demand that he be dismissed.
  • Navrhují mu, aby požádal o práci. They suggest him that he apply for the job.
  • in less formal English: that + should
  • They suggest, that he should apply for the job.