- Give me a book. / Give the book to me.
- Buy me a book. / Buy the book to me.
- Explain it to me. / Explain the excercise to me.
2/ INTERROGATIVE (TÁZACÍ)
- Whose is this umbrella? / Whose umbrella is this?
- Emphasizing: Look at yourself in the mirror. The Queen herself danced with him.
- this → these, that → those
- one of my friends = a friend of mine / my farther´s
- that boy of yours
- my father´s car ´= NELZE (A has B- vlastnictví)
- the Queen´s speech = the speech of the Queen
- any, some, neither, either, every, each…
- many, much, few, all, both
- all (of) my friends like hiking
- My friends all like hiking. = all- before a full meaning verb
- All of them are tired. They are all tired. = all- after an auxiliary (pomocné) verb
- = za pomocné, před významové !!!
- Pl. All Mondays are terrible.
- Sg. Every Monday is terrible.
ALL - EVERYTHING
- all you need is love
- That´s all.
- He knows all about it. He knows everything.
- 1: There aren´t any plates left. - neutrální věta
- 2: There are no plates left. – zdůraznění
- Idioms: There were no less than a hundred people. - neméně
- I am no better at maths than you.
- I tried hard. But it was no good. – marné
- There is no point in asking her for help. – nemá smysl
- It´s no use crying. – nemá smysl
EVERY x EACH
- every day- opakování- every two hours, every Monday
- every- refers to three or more items
- we want every child to succeed = generalizes, puts people into a group
- each will find it´s own road to success
- „each“- separates, we think of people doing things differently
- refers to two or more people
- Every (Each) time i see you. – no real difference
- My two brothers have each acted in a play.
- At the first night they each forgot their lines.
- I gave each child (sg.) an apple.
- I gave the children each (pl.) an apple. / I gave the children an apple each.
- I didn´t like either of the films. = refers to 2 items ( any- větší počet)
- = I didn´t like either film.
- Neither of the films was any good. – nestál za nic
- Neither film was any good.
I´m thirsty. So am I. / I´m thirsty, too.
I´m not hungry. Neither (Nor) am I.
I´m not hungry. I´m not hungry either.
- EITHER - OR (BUĎ – NEBO)
- Either she writes or phones.
- Either she or he are home.
- NEITHER - NOR ( ANI- ANI)
- I neither drink nor smoke.
NONE = no one
- None of the phones works.
- 1: Both cats are asleep.
- 2: Both the cats are asleep. Všechny 3 varianty správně!!!
- 3: Both of the cats are asleep.
- The cats are both asleep.
- She plays both the guitar and the piano. She both plays and sings.
MANY (Countable) - MUCH (Uncountable)
- many / much- only in questions and negatives: We don´t have much homework for Monday.
- do oznamovací věty kladné se nepoužívá many = She´s got a lot of work.
- many použijeme pokud je ve větě TOO, AS, SO, VERY
FEW (C) - LITTLE (U)
- His theory is difficult, few people understand it. = pouze málo lidí tomu rozumí L
- His theory is difficult, a few people understand it. = alespoň někdo tomu rozumí☺
- She has little interest in languages. L
- She has a little interest in languages. J
THERE IS / THERE ARE
- Na stole je knížka. -There is a book on the table. / On the table there is a book.
- Knížka je na stole. –The book is on the table.
- There are books on the table.
- There were a lot of problems discussed (+ participle) at the meeting. A lot of problems were discussed.
- A lot of people were standing on the tram. There were a lot of people standing.(+present participle)
- There is / there are- this phrase speaks about the existence of something : Once upon a time, there was a king.
- Idioms: There is no use trying / no point in trying.
- other verbs: live, exist, remain(zbývat), come, enter, arise, follow
= Once upon a time, there lived a king.
= There entered a strange figure.
= There followed long applause.
- There is nothing to do. = I´m bored.
- There´s nothing to be done. = No way of putting it right. ( nedá se to napravit.)
- There remains nothing to be done.
- There are problems. I don´t want that. = I dont´t want there to be problems.
- She is unhappy. I don´want that. = I don´t want her to be unhappy.
- a/„it“ refers to something mentioned before – Look at the house. It´s old.
- b/ grammatical subjects: talking about TIME, WEATHER, TEMPERATURE
- It´s time to go. It is raining. Every day it gets cooler.
- c/ preparatory (přípravný) subject - It would be pity to miss the film← nezačínáme hned hlavní myšlenkou
- (It is) nice to meet you. It was pleasant to sit in the shade.
- d/ „cleft“ sentences (zdůrazňovací konstrukce) = giving special importance to one part of the sentence
- It was Harry who/ that told the police. Policistům to řekl Harry.
- It was the neighbours who/ that told the police. (jed.číslo!!!)
- It was yesterday that they told the police.
- It is you who/ that I rely on. (who/ that nesmíme vynechat)
a/ a general subject
- You should always give yourself plenty of time to pack.
- One should always give oneself plenty of time to pack.
b/ one- another
- John and David hate each other/ one another.
- in general statements: ONE ANOTHER should be preferred: People should help one another
c/ „one“ is used to replace nouns
- I´d like an apple. Which one? The green one.
- I´d like a pound of apples.(C) Which ones? The red ones.
- If you don´t have fresh milk (U), take tinned.=>NEPOČÍTATELNÉ=NEMŮŽEME POUŽÍT ONE => YOU CAN´T USE ONE TO REPLACE UNCOUNTABLES
- in affirmative statements (oznam.klad.věta):
- Take some warm clothes. (PL.C.)
- Have some milk. (U)
- some in questions:
- offers: Would you like some wine?
- request: Could someone open the door for me?
- in questions: Are there any questions?
- in negatives: There aren´t any.
- really negative: We got there without any trouble.
- ANY + COMPARATIVE:Is she any better now? (už)
- I don´t want to stay there any longer. (už ne)
- IN A FORMATIVE SENTENCE : Think of a number. Any number you like. = no matter which
- Whatever I do is wrong. = no matter I do is wrong
- No matter who (= whoever) comes tell them to wait. = PL. – ne tell him!!!
- Whatever are you doing? = surprise
- What on earth are you doing? = proboha…
- Why ever didn´t you tell you were coming?
Talking about PAINS, BLOWS etc. and PARTS OF THE BODY after prepositions:
- Rajče ho zasáhlo do oka. The tomato hit his eye. The tomato him him in the eye. – NE in his eye!!!
- She had a parrot on HER shoulder.
- She had a pain in THE shoulder.
OTHER / ANOTHER
- I like this apple. I´d like another. = one more - další, přidáváme
- I don´t like this blouse. I need another. = a different one – jinou
- There are two blouses in the shop window. One is blue and the other is green.
- PL. Some people smoke other people don´t . = JINÍ, ODLIŠNÍ, JINÉHO ZALOŽENÍ
- Dark colours don´t suit you, you need other.
- Some people smoke others don´t. = OSTATNÍ, NE JINÍ!!!
- Well, you are here, but where are the other students?
- the others = OSTATNÍ