Pronouns (zájmena)



  • Give me a book. /  Give the book to me.
  • Buy me a book.  /  Buy the book to me.
  • Explain it to me. /  Explain the excercise to me.


  • Whose is this umbrella?  /   Whose umbrella is this?


  • Emphasizing: Look at yourself in the mirror. The Queen herself danced with him.


  • this → these, that → those


  • one of my friends = a friend of mine / my farther´s
  • that boy of yours
  • my father´s car ´=  NELZE  (A has B- vlastnictví)
  • the Queen´s speech = the speech of the Queen


  • any, some, neither, either, every, each…
  • many, much, few, all, both



  • all (of) my friends like hiking
  • My friends all like hiking. = all- before a full meaning verb
  • All of them are tired. They are all tired.  =  all- after an auxiliary (pomocné) verb
  • = za pomocné, před významové !!!
    • Pl. All Mondays are terrible.
    • Sg. Every Monday is terrible.


  • all you need is love
  • That´s all.
  • He knows all about it. He knows everything.


  • 1: There aren´t any plates left.  - neutrální věta
  • 2: There are no plates left.        – zdůraznění
  • Idioms: There were no less than a hundred people. - neméně
  • I am no better at maths than you.
  • I tried hard. But it was no good. – marné
  • There is no point in asking her for help. – nemá smysl
  • It´s no use crying. – nemá smysl



  • every day- opakování- every two hours, every Monday
  • every- refers to three or more items
  • we want every child to succeed  = generalizes, puts people into a group


  • each will find it´s own road to success
  • „each“- separates, we think of people doing things differently

                - refers to two or more people

  • Every (Each) time i see you. – no real difference
  • My two brothers have each acted in a play.
  • At the first night they each forgot their lines.
  • I gave each child (sg.) an apple.
  • I gave the children each (pl.) an apple. / I gave the children an apple each.


  • I didn´t like either of the films. = refers to 2 items ( any- větší počet)

-  = I didn´t like either film.


  • Neither of the films was any good. – nestál za nic
  • Neither film            was any good.

A:                             B:

I´m thirsty.               So am I. / I´m thirsty, too.

I´m not hungry.        Neither (Nor) am I.

I´m not hungry.        I´m not hungry either.

  • EITHER  -  OR (BUĎ – NEBO)
    • Either she writes or phones.
    • Either she or he are home.
  • NEITHER   -   NOR ( ANI- ANI)
    • I neither drink nor smoke.

NONE  =  no one

  • None of the phones works.


  • 1: Both cats are asleep.
  • 2: Both the cats are asleep.                 Všechny 3 varianty správně!!!
  • 3: Both of the cats are asleep.
  • The cats are both asleep.
  • She plays both the guitar and the piano. She both plays and sings.

MANY (Countable)   -   MUCH (Uncountable)

  • many / much- only in questions and negatives: We don´t have much homework for Monday.
  • do oznamovací věty kladné se nepoužívá  many = She´s got a lot of work.
  • many použijeme pokud je ve větě TOO, AS, SO, VERY


  • His theory is difficult,    few people understand it. = pouze málo lidí tomu rozumí L
  • His theory is difficult, a few people understand it. = alespoň někdo tomu rozumí☺
  • She has    little interest in languages. L
  • She has a little interest in languages. J


  • Na stole je knížka. -There is a book on the table. / On the table there is a book.
  • Knížka je na stole. –The book is on the table.
  • There are books on the table.
  • There were a lot of problems discussed (+ participle) at the meeting. A lot of problems were discussed.
  • A lot of people were standing on the tram. There were a lot of people standing.(+present participle)
  • There is / there are- this phrase speaks about the existence of something : Once upon a time, there was a king.
  • Idioms:  There is no use trying / no point in trying.
  • other verbs: live, exist, remain(zbývat), come, enter, arise, follow

                        = Once upon a time, there lived a king.

                        = There entered a strange figure.

                        = There followed long applause.

  • There is nothing to do. = I´m bored.
  • There´s nothing to be done. = No way of putting it right. ( nedá se to napravit.)
  • There remains nothing to be done.
  • There are problems. I don´t want that. = I dont´t want there to be problems.
  • She is unhappy. I don´want that. = I don´t want her to be unhappy.


  • a/„it“ refers to something mentioned before – Look at the house. It´s old.
  • b/ grammatical subjects: talking about TIME, WEATHER, TEMPERATURE
    • It´s time to go. It is raining. Every day it gets cooler.
  • c/ preparatory (přípravný) subject - It would be pity to miss the film← nezačínáme hned hlavní myšlenkou
    • (It is) nice to meet you. It was pleasant to sit in the shade.
  • d/ „cleft“ sentences (zdůrazňovací konstrukce) = giving special importance to one part of the sentence
    • It was Harry who/ that told the police. Policistům to řekl Harry.
    • It was the neighbours who/ that told the police. (jed.číslo!!!)
    • It was yesterday that they told the police.
    •  It is you who/ that  I rely on. (who/ that nesmíme vynechat)


a/ a general subject

  • You should always give yourself plenty of time to pack.
  • One should always give oneself plenty of time to pack.

b/ one- another

  • John and David hate each other/ one another.
  • in general statements: ONE ANOTHER should be preferred: People should help one another

c/ „one“ is used to replace nouns

  • I´d like an apple. Which one? The green one.
  • I´d like a pound of apples.(C) Which ones? The red ones.
    • If you don´t have fresh milk (U), take tinned.=>NEPOČÍTATELNÉ=NEMŮŽEME POUŽÍT ONE => YOU CAN´T USE ONE TO REPLACE UNCOUNTABLES


  • in affirmative statements (oznam.klad.věta):
    • Take some warm clothes. (PL.C.)
    • Have some milk. (U)
  • some in questions:
    • offers: Would you like some wine?
    • request: Could someone open the door for me?


  • in questions: Are there any questions?
  • in negatives: There aren´t any.
  • really negative: We got there without any trouble.
  • ANY + COMPARATIVE:Is she any better now? (už)
    • I don´t want to stay there any longer. (už ne)
  • IN A FORMATIVE SENTENCE : Think of a number. Any number you like. = no matter which

Koncovka EVER

  • Whatever I do is wrong. = no matter I do is wrong
  • No matter who (= whoever) comes tell them to wait.  = PL. – ne tell him!!!
  • Whatever are you doing? = surprise
  • What on earth are you doing? = proboha…
  • Why ever didn´t you tell you were coming?

Talking about PAINS, BLOWS etc. and PARTS OF THE BODY after prepositions:

  • Rajče ho zasáhlo do oka. The tomato hit his eye. The tomato him him in the eye. – NE in his eye!!!
  • She had a parrot on HER shoulder.
  • She had a pain in THE shoulder.

OTHER / ANOTHER           

  • I like this apple. I´d like another. = one more - další, přidáváme
  • I don´t like this blouse. I need another. = a different one – jinou
  • There are two blouses in the shop window. One is blue and the other is green.
  • PL. Some people smoke other people don´t . = JINÍ, ODLIŠNÍ, JINÉHO ZALOŽENÍ
    • Dark colours don´t suit you, you need other.
    • Some people smoke others don´t. = OSTATNÍ, NE JINÍ!!!
    • Well, you are here, but where are the other students?
    • the others = OSTATNÍ