Time clauses


  • Time clauses use the form of the present simple to refer to future time.
    • We´ll talk(the future tense) about it when you arrive(present time).
    • As soon as the film finishes we´ll go home.
    • I´ll wait until you are ready.
    • After we paint the wall we´ll have a rest.
    • I´ll have a lunch before I start work.
    • By the time we get there it´ll be dark.
    • Once the dog gets used to you, it won´t bark.
    • Whenever I feel depressed, I´ll call you.
    • Let me know the moment you see him.
    • Can you water the flowers while I am away?

Possible variations:

  • I´m going to travel the world before I get too old.
  • As soon as the lesson finishes, I´m leaving.
  • After she finishes school, she wants to go to university.

Time clauses emphasizing completion:

  • When the painters have finished the rooms, they´ll leave.
  • When I have finished my homework, I´ll take the dog out.
  • Don´t leave until we have settled the matter. (dokud není ta záležitost vyřešená)

Other time clauses:

  • When / After he had put (dokonavost) the phone down he started to laugh.
  • By the time they got to the station the train had left.
  • Hurry up! By the time we get to the station the train will have left.
  • (Just) as I was passing his house I heard a noise.
  • While I was having a bath, the phone rang.
  • Since they got married, they have moved house twice.
  • It´s (been) ages since I last drove a car.
  • We´ll wait until it gets dark / it has got dark.


    • I´ll wait till / until 5. I´ll wait till / until you come.
    • We have lunch break from 12 to / till 1.
    • Hand in your essays by Friday. = lhůta, někdo odevzdá ve středu, pátek je lhůta
    • Stay here till 5. = continuing state
    • May I stay here till Monday?
    • I think you are wrong. I still think you are wrong. = a continuing state
    • I can´t decide. I still can´t decide.
    • Is my coat dry yet?(už) Not yet?(ještě ne)
    • Is my coat dry already? = surprise  - That´s quick.


  • What are you up to these days?
  • He´s out of work at the moment.
  • Nowadays (v souč.době) more women have carriers. = in contrast with what things used to be
  • He is currently having talks in China.


!!! presently, shortly = soon

I´ll be with you presently. - směřováno do budoucnosti

  • tomorrow, the day after tomorrow
  • next Sunday, the Sunday after next
  • see you later / afterwards / after that
  • Come at 3. I´ll be free then. - v tu dobu
  • One day I´ll be rich.
  • What comes next ? Co přijde teď?
  • They´ll take us over before long. - zanedlouho
  • this time next week - touto dobou příští týden
  • in an hour- za hodinu
  • in two weeks (time) - za 2 týdny
  • in the future - v budoucnosti × in future - pro příště - Be more careful in future.


  • yesterday, the day before yesterday
  • last Sunday, the Sunday before last
  • a week ago
  • long ago - před dlouhou dobou
  • once upon a time...there was a king
  • in ancient times...people used to believe in ghosts; in the old days- v dávných dobách
  • I lived there once. Kdysi jsem tam bydlel.
  • I have only been there once (twice..). - jedenkrát
  • this time last week
  • we have met before / we have already met
  • she lived there for 4 years - žila × she has lived there for 4 years - žije
  • I´ve been feeling ill lately (pouze předpřít.čas) / recently (předpřít. i min.čas)
  • I met them recently / the other day. - onehdy
  • They met in 1980. He was a student then / in those days / at that time.
  • earlier + jednod.min.čas - I made the dinner earlier, let´s warm it up.
  • He met her one day in the park. - jednoho dne
    • At first / In the beginning I thought it was raining, but I was wrong. - ze začátku
    • At the beginning, at the end of a lesson means when the lesson begins or ends. - „techn. označení“
  • I´m afraid they´ll tear the house down in the end / eventually / finally.
    • At last the taxi has arrived. - konečně - suggests relief- úleva

Frequency: They seldom / hardly ever / rarely ask for my advice.

  • hourly - adj. / adv.:
  • She changes her mind hourly. = every hour (adv.)
  • There are hourly flights to London.

He is always / continually / constantly complaining. = zlobí nás to

  • Continual complaining = repeated constantly × continuous rain = without stopping