Clauses of purpose (účelové věty)
- Prosím, abys jí pomohl. = VV předmětná - object.clause
- Je důležité, abys jí pomohl. = VV podmětná - subj.clause
- Jsi tu abys jí pomohl. = VV účelová
- The police locked the door, so that nobody could get in.
- Jack went to England to study engineering.
- =the subjects have = the infinitive of purpose
- to be the same
- Jack went to England to / in order to / so as to study engineering. =POSITIVE SENTENCES
- He went to England so as not to / in order not to forget his English. = NEGATIVE SENTENCE
- Vezmi si mapu abys nezabloudil.
- Take a map in case you(taking precaution)- pro případ / so as not to get lost.
A False clause of purpose
- He was running fast only to discover that the train had left.
- I´ll do everything so that you won´t complain.
- = I´ll do everything to prevent (from) you complaining.
- I´ll do everything so that you´ll / to make you feel comfortable.
- She speaks /spoke low for fear that they may / might overhear her.
- She gets / got up early lest (aby ne) she should miss the train.
“FOR“describes how things are used:
- This button is for starting the machine. - nepatří do účel.souvětí
CLAUSES OF REASON (příčinné v.)
- He didn´t go to the meeting because he wasn´t interested.
- As it is february we are nearer to spring. = něco co je obecně známé, východisko sdělení
- As it is your birthday we brought you some flowers. ×
We brought you some flowers, because it is your birthday. -NE!!!
- God forgive them for they know not what they do. - dated and literary -zastaralé a knižní
Prepositions of reason:
The match was cancelled because of / due to / owing to / on account of the bad weather.
CLAUSES OF RESULT
- They lied to me and so / so that / that´s why / for that reason / as a result / therefore / consequently I don´t trust them any more. = v důsledku toho
- He is so (+adj.) tall that he always hits his head on the door.
- She is such (+noun) a busy person that she´s never bored.
- The table is too heavy for me to lift.
- I´m not strong enough to lift the table.
- The tea is too hot to drink
CLAUSES OF CONTRAST (odporovací) AND CONSESSION (přípustkové)
- Although / Though / Even though / Even if you don´t like him, you still can be polite.
- Jill is good at running while / whilst / whereas his sister is good at jumping.
- He runs fast. But he didn´t win.
- However, / Nevertheless, he didn´t win.
- He didn´t, though. /, however. /, nevertheless.
- Inspite of / Despite running fast he didn´t win.
- She was injured. She won the race.
- Despite / inspite of + noun /-ing
- Despite her injury / being injured she won the race.
- Whatever you do / No matter what you do, don´t touch those wires.
- Kdo přijde, ať počká. Whoever comes / No matter who comes tell them to wait.
- No matter how / However much they liked each other they quarrelled a lot.
CLAUSES OF COMPARISON
- He looks as if he didn´t know me. = but he does
- You look as if you are happy. = you are obviously
- You look as if you have been running.
- She looked as if she had seen a ghost.
- They looked at me as if / like I was crazy.