Conditionals (podmínkové věty)

Conditionals (podmínkové věty)

ZERO CONDITIONAL

  • If you drop a glass, it breaks. – přít.čas
  • If you touch a hot iron, you burn yourself.
  • =this is what always happens -pravidlo, které se opakuje za každých okolností,„tak to prostě funguje“

 

FIRST CONDITIONAL = A REAL CONDITION

  • If you drop the glass, it will break.
  • = we are talking about a real situation, we are making prediction about the future, but the tense used after“if“ is present
  • If you touch the hot iron, you will burn yourself. = this is likely to happen
  • There are variatoins of this:
  • If the weather is fine tomorrow, we can play tennis.
  • If the fog got thicker, the plane may / might be diverted. (odloženo)
  • If you want to lose weight, you must eat less/ you should eat less/ don´t eat so much.

IF + WILL

If you will come this way, I´ll take you to this office. = request – žádost

IF + SHOULD

If you should meet him, tell him to ring me up. = if you happen to meet him – náhodou, jestliže se stane.. – it seems less probable

Other conjunctions:

  • I´ll lend you the money providing / provided ( za předpokladu) you pay it back next week.
  • I´ll lend you the money, as long as/ on condition that( pokud) you pay it back next week.
  • Supposing / Suppose ( předpokládejme, že…) your parents find out, what will you do?
  • Take some spare parts in case ( pro případ) your car breaks down.
  • I won´t lend you the money unless (pokud ne) you promise to pay it back next week.
  • „If“ + jednoduchý přít.čas !!!- If it rains  × ne- If it is raining

Real condition:

  • If I have a car, things will be fine.
    • =jestliže budu mít auto – mluvčí to vidí jako reálnou záležitost

Unreal condition

  • If I had a car, things would be fine.
    • = kdybych měl auto – mluvčí to vidí nereálně

Real × Unreal

– the difference between „If I have a car“ and „If I had a car“ is not a difference of timeThe past tense after „if“ means that the speaker sees the situation as less probableimpossible or imaginary

Compare: If I become president … řekne kandidát

If I became president… řekne kdokoliv

 

SECOND CONDITIONAL = UNREAL CONDITION

  • If I were/ was you, I would take the job.
  • If I were younger, I´d…
    • = If+past time   +   would+present infinitive

Variations:

if+past tense   +   might, could, should+present inf.

If they offered

×

If they were to offer me the job, I´d refuse it. – ještě méně pravděpodobné – this is even less likely to happen

 

THIRD CONDITIONAL

Situation:

  • I missed the train this morning.
  • If I hadn´t missed the train, I wouldn´t have been late for school.
  • if+past perfect tense   +   would / should / might / could + prefect infinitive

 

MIXED CONDITIONALS:

  • If we had been born in the USA, we would be American citizens now.
  • If she hadn´t married him, she wouldn´t be unhappy now.

Inversion:

  • 1st  conditional: – should – náhoda
    • If you should meet him… = Should you meet him… – není to otázka !!!
  • 2nd conditional: – to be
    • If she were my daughter… = Were she my daughter, I would know what to do.
    • If they were to offer me the job …= Were they to offer me the job, I´d accept it.
  • 3rd conditional:
    • If I had known that you were coming, I´d have bought more food. = Had I known…