Conditionals (podmínkové věty)
- If you drop a glass, it breaks. - přít.čas
- If you touch a hot iron, you burn yourself.
- =this is what always happens -pravidlo, které se opakuje za každých okolností,„tak to prostě funguje“
FIRST CONDITIONAL = A REAL CONDITION
- If you drop the glass, it will break.
- = we are talking about a real situation, we are making prediction about the future, but the tense used after“if“ is present
- If you touch the hot iron, you will burn yourself. = this is likely to happen
- There are variatoins of this:
- If the weather is fine tomorrow, we can play tennis.
- If the fog got thicker, the plane may / might be diverted. (odloženo)
- If you want to lose weight, you must eat less/ you should eat less/ don´t eat so much.
IF + WILL
If you will come this way, I´ll take you to this office. = request - žádost
IF + SHOULD
If you should meet him, tell him to ring me up. = if you happen to meet him - náhodou, jestliže se stane.. - it seems less probable
- I´ll lend you the money providing / provided ( za předpokladu) you pay it back next week.
- I´ll lend you the money, as long as/ on condition that( pokud) you pay it back next week.
- Supposing / Suppose ( předpokládejme, že...) your parents find out, what will you do?
- Take some spare parts in case ( pro případ) your car breaks down.
- I won´t lend you the money unless (pokud ne) you promise to pay it back next week.
- „If“ + jednoduchý přít.čas !!!- If it rains × ne-
If it is raining
- If I have a car, things will be fine.
- =jestliže budu mít auto - mluvčí to vidí jako reálnou záležitost
- If I had a car, things would be fine.
- = kdybych měl auto - mluvčí to vidí nereálně
Real × Unreal
- the difference between „If I have a car“ and „If I had a car“ is not a difference of time. The past tense after „if“ means that the speaker sees the situation as less probable, impossible or imaginary
Compare: If I become president ... řekne kandidát
If I became president... řekne kdokoliv
SECOND CONDITIONAL = UNREAL CONDITION
- If I were/ was you, I would take the job.
- If I were younger, I´d...
- = If+past time + would+present infinitive
if+past tense + might, could, should+present inf.
If they offered
If they were to offer me the job, I´d refuse it. - ještě méně pravděpodobné - this is even less likely to happen
- I missed the train this morning.
- If I hadn´t missed the train, I wouldn´t have been late for school.
- if+past perfect tense + would / should / might / could + prefect infinitive
- If we had been born in the USA, we would be American citizens now.
- If she hadn´t married him, she wouldn´t be unhappy now.
- 1st conditional: - should - náhoda
- If you should meet him... = Should you meet him... - není to otázka !!!
- 2nd conditional: - to be
- If she were my daughter... = Were she my daughter, I would know what to do.
- If they were to offer me the job ...= Were they to offer me the job, I´d accept it.
- 3rd conditional:
- If I had known that you were coming, I´d have bought more food. = Had I known...