- 1/ Of movement- to drive towards the mountains
- 2/ Of position and place- it is on top of the fridge
- 3/ Purpose (účelu)- he did everything for her, to commit crimes for money
- × he was sent to prison for stealing- není účel
- 4/ They cancelled the match because of the rain, he didn´t arrrive due to an illness, he stole from hunger, she married for love (z lásky), I said that out of pity/ sympathy, I went there out of curiosity ( ze zvědavosti),
- !!! Picasso died of flu. – zemřít na nemoc+of old age × to die from starvation (vyhladovění)
- 5/ Of origin (původu)- he comes from France
- 6/ Of instrument- he opened the can with a knife
- !!! He was hit with a branch = someone hit him with a branch
- by a branch = a branch hit him
Arrive - není slovesem pohybu
- You arrive - in cities and countries, but
- at places
They arrived in Prague / at the airport ...
Leave - for
- He left for Prague. Odjel do Prahy.
- He left Olomouc for Prague. Odjel z Olomouce do Prahy.
Get on / off
- a bus / train / tram / bike / horse / motorbike
Get into / out of
- a car / lorry / taxi / small boats / private planes
We went by train / car / bus ... bez členu
We went in a taxi / his car / in (on) the next train... pokud potřebujeme říct člen, zájmeno, př.jméno
Some prepositions = adverbs
- Sit behind me( sedni si za mě). × Sit behind (sedni si dozadu).
- Wait outside the cinema (počkej před kinem) × Wait outside ( počkej venku).
Prepositions at the end of a sentence
- Who are you waiting for?
- I don´t have a chair to sit on.
He sits next / beside Paula. (vedle)
He sits by the exit / at the table.
By the sea = very close × Near the sea = perhaps 5 km
Above × below
- co je níž × výš - představa svislého pohybu
- above the freezing point ( zero)
- above the sea level, below average
- the clouds above our heads
- the village below the hill
Over × under
- closeness, touching, covering
- Hold the umbrella over my head. ( = kvůli nějakému účelu - abychom se schovali před děštěm)
- a dog under the table - aby se schoval
- put the blanket over you
- there is a cloud over the south of Europe
- The plane flew over Denmark.
At - in - on
- at a point - at the North Pole
- in = inside ( three dimensions) - in the room
- on - position an a surface, on a line - on the table, on the wall, a place on the river
At × in
- we spent the weekend at the cottage = mushrooming, repairing..., we think of activity going on there
in the cottage = it rained
- Yesterday I was at the theatre. ( dívala jsem se na představení)
- 300 seats in the cinema. ( v budově, představa 3D )
- We met at / in the cinema.
- along / up / down the street
- turn left into Smetana Street
- through - the forest (představa prodírání se)
- off - cut a piece off a loaf, fall off a bike
- in front of a mirror
- before- A comes before B × Right before my eyes ( idiom)
-during × in - We met in the summer. (jednorázově)
- His health improved during the summer.( trvání)
-for × since - It has been raining for a week. How long are you here for? → FOR + period of t.
- It has been raining since Monday. → SINCE + a point of time
- from × since - She played the piano from the age of 5.
- She has played the piano since the age of 5.
- our lesson lasts till 12 (něco trvá)
- hand in your essays by Monday (lhůta)
- 3 days ago × 3 days before Christmas
-Everybody came except (for) you / apart from you. = but you didn´t - vyjma
What language do you study besides English / apart from English? - vedle angličtiny
= apart from - univerzální
- a book by Grahame Green
- in my opinion - podle mého názoru, from my point of view- u mého hlediska
- for this reason- z tohoto důvodu
- in pencil- tužkou × don´t write with this pencil
- talk in a loud voice / in a whisper
- on the phone, on the radio, on (the) TV
- by my watch- podle mých hodinek
- a cell in the prison × she is in prison
- the face in the picture × the dust on the picture
- in(to) + throw, fall, jump, dive, put
- at a concert, at the theatre
- a place on the map, on the wall, on the floor
- by tram / in our car / on the next bus / in his boat
- a plane above the mountains
- temperatures below zero
- at height above the sea level
- she left for New York
- wait till Christmas
- a performance below average
- at the age of 5 / in his teens, thirties
- a blow below the belt( rána pod pás)
- he climbed onto the roof
- she swam across the river
- she walked over the bridge
- along / up / down the street
- despite / inspite of / regardless of her cold
- I couldn´t see him through the smoke
- come home by ten
- open it with the knife
- an exam in English